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Table 2 Adjusted Odds Ratios for chiropractic use

From: A longitudinal study of chiropractic use among older adults in the United States

  AOR (95% CIs) Reference Category
Demographic Factors   
Age 0.981 (0.964 - 0.998)  
Male 0.759 (0.620 - 0.929) Female
Race   
African American 0.268 (0.163 - 0.439) White
Hispanic 0.916 (0.533 - 1.574) White
Other 0.131 (0.021 - 0.798) White
Marital Status   
Never Married 0.547 (0.314 - 0.954) Married
Separated/Divorced 0.806 (0.521 - 1.246) Married
Widowed 0.758 (0.612 - 0.939) Married
Socioeconomic Factors   
Educational Attainment   
Grade School 1.229 (0.932 - 1.620) Some High School
High School 1.004 (0.786 - 1.283) Some High School
Some College 0.904 (0.692 - 1.180) Some High School
Income Distribution   
Income - First Quintile 0.760 (0.516 - 1.119) Fifth Quintile
Income - Second Quintile 0.816 (0.627 - 1.060) Fifth Quintile
Income - Third Quintile 0.769 (0.579 - 1.021) Fifth Quintile
Income - Fourth Quintile 0.872 (0.695 - 1.095) Fifth Quintile
One or More Health Insurance Policy 0.849 (0.672 - 1.073) Zero Additional Health Policies
Working for Pay 0.959 (0.737 - 1.248)  
Able to Drive a Car 1.923 (1.486 - 2.488)  
Geographic Location Measures   
Northeast 0.491 (0.306 - 0.787) MidWest Region
New York/New Jersey 0.692 (0.472 - 1.013) MidWest Region
Mid-Atlantic 0.473 (0.307 - 0.727) MidWest Region
Southeast 0.555 (0.387 - 0.796) MidWest Region
North-Central 0.721 (0.516 - 0.987) MidWest Region
South-West 0.369 (0.242 - 0.560) MidWest Region
Mountain 0.258 (0.140 - 0.478) MidWest Region
West 0.677 (0.460 - 0.997) MidWest Region
Pacific-Northwest 0.990 (0.620 - 1.581) MidWest Region
Rural 1.127 (0.901 - 1.409)  
Distance to Chiropractic College - Far 1.068 (0.878 - 1.298) Near (< 150 miles)
Disease History and Comorbidity   
Zero Comorbid Conditions 0.851 (0.619 - 1.170) One Comorbid Condition
Two Comorbid Conditions 1.174 (0.859 - 1.603) One Comorbid Condition
Three or More Comorbid Conditions 1.833 (1.056 - 3.183) One Comorbid Condition
Arthritis Ever 1.088 (0.808 - 1.466)  
Cancer Ever 0.790 (0.571 - 1.092)  
Heart Condition Ever 0.763 (0.565 - 1.031)  
Diabetes Now 0.856 (0.609 - 1.202)  
Lung Disease Ever 0.607 (0.416 - 0.885)  
Psych Problems Ever 0.965 (0.662 - 1.407)  
Hip Fracture Ever 0.783 (0.492 - 1.244)  
Hypertension Ever 0.679 (0.506 - 0.912)  
Functional Status   
Bothered by Pain Often 1.541 (1.267 - 1.874)  
Difficulty Picking Up a Dime 1.015 (0.721 - 1.428)  
Difficulty Lifting 10 Pounds 0.902 (0.706 - 1.152)  
Difficulty Pushing/Pulling Large Object 0.899 (0.713 - 1.135)  
Difficulty Climbing Flight of Stairs 1.086 (0.840 - 1.402)  
Difficulty Walking Several Blocks 0.917 (0.727 - 1.155)  
Number of ADLs with Difficulty 0.882 (0.748 - 1.041)  
Number of IADLs with Difficulty 0.837 (0.705 - 0.993)  
Depressive Symptoms - One or Two 1.023 (0.851 - 1.229) No Depressive Symptoms
Depressive Symptoms - Three or More 0.789 (0.612 - 1.016) No Depressive Symptoms
TICS 7 Score - Zero to Ten 0.887 (0.696 - 1.129) Eleven to Thirteen TICS 7 Score
TICS 7 Score - Fourteen to Fifteen 0.913 (0.761 - 1.096) Eleven to Thirteen TICS 7 Score
Health Lifestyles   
Never Smoked 1.162 (0.973 - 1.387) Current or Former Smoker
Ever Drink Alcohol 1.162 (0.976 - 1.385) Never Drink Alcohol
Obese Weight (BMI ≥ 30) 0.985 (0.757 - 1.281) Normal Weight
Over Weight (25 ≤ BMI < 30) 1.259 (1.058 - 1.499) Normal Weight
Under Weight (BMI < 18.5) 0.468 (0.241 - 0.910) Normal Weight
Self-Rated Health   
Excellent 1.613 (1.026 - 2.536) Poor Self-Rated Health
Very Good 1.658 (1.108 - 2.481) Poor Self-Rated Health
Good 1.227 (0.839 - 1.797) Poor Self-Rated Health
Fair 1.066 (0.736 - 1.544) Poor Self-Rated Health
Utilization of Health Services in Prior 12 months   
Number of Hospitalizations 0.837 (0.671 - 1.043)  
Number of Physician Visits - One or Less 0.853 (0.681 - 1.069) Two to Three Physician Visits
Number of Physician Visits - Four to Six 1.214 (0.981 - 1.502) Two to Three Physician Visits
Number of Physician Visits - Seven or More 1.415 (1.098 - 1.823) Two to Three Physician Visits
Supply of Physicians per 1000 - County level 0.916 (0.853 - 0.984)  
  1. Note: Physician visit counts are in response to the question of how many visits to medical doctors the individual had made. Significant predictors at the 5% level are shown in bold face italics.