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Table 5a Effect of SMT on experimentally induced pain by localization of pain reduction in relation to the quality of studies

From: The effect of spinal manipulative therapy on experimentally induced pain: a systematic literature review

  Systemic effect Regional effect Local or same metamere
SMT relieved pain [23]* -Cervical SMT/hand- foot T° [42] – C5-C6 SMT / deltoid PPT [37] – C5-C6 SMT/ Elbow PPT
[44]* -Lumbar Mob/hand PPT [29] – Atlantooccipital SMT/masseter PPT [44] – Lumbar mob/ L2 L5 (foot) PPT
[43]* - Lumbar SMT/ deltoid PPT [38] - Atlantooccipital SMT/sphenoid PPT K - C5-C6 SMT/ Elbow PPT
[18]* -Lumbar SMT/hand- foot PPT [30] - Lumbar SMT/ 1st segment below PPT [20] – C3-C4 SMT/ Trapezius PPT 5’
[18]* -Lumbar SMT/hand- foot T° [43]* - Lumbar SMT/ L3 PPT [20] – C3-C4 SMT/ Trapezius PPT 10’
[36]* -Lumbar SMT/hand- foot T° [39] – C7-T1 SMT/ C5-C6 PPT [31] - C5-C6 SMT/ Elbow PPT
  [39] – C7-T1 SMT/ C5-C6 PPT [21] - C5-C6 SMT/ Elbow PPT
  [40]– Areas of stroking allodynia thorax SMT/ forearm [21]- C5-C6 SMT/ Elbow spontaneous pain
  [40] – Mechanical hyperalgesia thorax SMT/ forearm [32]- C5-C6 SMT/ Elbow PPT
  [40] – Spontaneous pain thorax SMT/ forearm [33] - C5-C6 SMT/ Elbow PPT
   [33] –C5-C6 SMT/ Elbow stretch test
   [41]- Thoracic SMT/ spinous process electricity
   [35]- Thoracic SMT/ Thoracic PPT
SMT did not relieve pain [23]* - Cervical SMT/hand- foot 1st Pain T° [37] – T5-T8 SMT (sham SMT)/ Elbow PPT [42] – C5-C6 SMT / Trapezius PPT
[23]* - Cervical SMT/hand- foot PPT   [28]** – C5-C6 Mob(AP)/ C5-C6 PPT
[18]* – Lumbar SMT/hand- foot 1st Pain T°   [19]- C5-C6 SMT/ Elbow Cold
[36]* –Lumbar SMT/hand- foot 1st Pain T°   [19] - C5-C6 SMT/ Elbow Hot
   [20]*** – C3-C4 SMT/ Trapezius PPT0’
   [32] - C5-C6 SMT/ Elbow Temp PPT
   [33] –C5-C6 SMT/ Elbow spontaneous pain
    [34]- C0-C1SMT/ C2 PPT
  1. X- : Studies scoring ≤ 12 points on 18 point scale and ≤ 4 points on 8 point scale.
  2. X- : Study scoring ≤ 4 points on 8 point scale and more than 12 points on 18 point scale.
  3. X *: Studies where the assessor was not blinded.
  4. ** This was an anterior-posterior mobilization, not lateral as is usually the case in SMT.
  5. *** Pressure pain thresholds measured just after spinal manipulation, but there was a hypoalgesic effect at 5’ and 10’.
  6. T° = temperature.
  7. PPT = pressure pain thresholds.