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Table 2 Accuracy, repeatability and thresholds for hypomobility (HT) and minimal detectable change (MDC) in IV-RoM in healthy volunteers

From: Does inter-vertebral range of motion increase after spinal manipulation? A prospective cohort study

  Flexion Extension
AccuracyRMS error (o) repeatability In plane 0.21 intra-observer Out of plane 0.50 inter-observer In plane 0.34 intra-observer Out of plane 0.40 inter-observer
Agreement (SEM)     
C1-2 0.8 0.8 1.1 0.4
C2-3 0.3 0.4 0.8 0.7
C3-4 0.5 0.3 1.0 1.0
C4-5 0.6 0.5 0.8 0.8
C5-6 0.5 0.3 1.1 1.0
Reliability (ICC, 95% CI) * μ * μ
C1-2 0.97 (0.89-0.99) 0.96 (0.82-0.99) 0.90 (0.64-0.97) 0.97 (0.88-0.99)
C2-3 0.97 (0.90-0.99) 0.97 (0.90-0.99) 0.95 (0.80-0.99) 0.95 (0.71-0.98)
C3-4 0.99 (0.98-0.99) 0.99 (0.98-0.99) 0.92 (0.71-0.98) 0.97 (0.87-0.99)
C4-5 0.97 (0.89-0.99) 0.97 (0.89-0.99) 0.97 (0.89-0.99) 0.97 (0.85-0.99)
C5-6 0.99 (0.97-0.99) 0.99 (0.97-0.99) 0.97 (0.85-0.99) 0.97 (0.85-0.98)
Thresholds (o) HT MDC HT MDC
C1-2 1.3 3.8 1.1 4.4
C2-3 0.8 3.0 0.9 4.5
C3-4 1.8 3.9 2.3 6.4
C4-5 2.3 3.4 3.5 4.7
C5-6 1.1 3.4 1.3 5.0
  1. * = ICC(3C,1), μ = ICC (2C,1), two-way single measure mixed effects model (consistency).