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Table 4 The association between back muscle strength in extension and back pain in people younger than 19 years as reported in four studies

From: Is back pain during childhood or adolescence associated with muscle strength, muscle endurance or aerobic capacity: three systematic literature reviews with one meta-analysis

Ref numb. Name of first author/year Design of study Independent variable Dependent variables listed in method Dependent variables reported in result section Association BMS in extension and back pain
[24] Balagué 1993 CS BMS in N Cumulative life prevalence History of BP None
Point prevalence
Localization of BP
[25] Balagué 2010 CS and P BMS in N LBP medical attention History of LBP None
LBP consequences
Last episode
Parental history of BP
[26] Merati 2004 CS BMS in N Frequency of BP History of BP None
[27] Newcomer 1996 P BMS in N LBP-ever LBP-ever None
Age of first episode Age of first episode
One-Year prevalence One-Year prevalence
LBP consequences LBP consequences
LBP-doctor LBP-doctor
  1. CS: cross-sectionnal study
  2. P: prospective study
  3. BMS: back muscle strength (in extension)
  4. N: Newton
  5. BP: Back pain
  6. LBP: Low back pain