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Table 3 Risk of Bias for Accepted Randomized Controlled Trials based on the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) Criteria [43]

From: Multimodal care for the management of musculoskeletal disorders of the elbow, forearm, wrist and hand: a systematic review by the Ontario Protocol for Traffic Injury Management (OPTIMa) Collaboration

Author, Year Research Question Randomization Concealment Blinding Similarity at baseline Similarities between arms Outcome measurement Percent drop-out Intention to treat Multiple sites
Bisset et al., 2006, 2009 [62, 63] Y Y Y Y Y N Y 6 Weeks:
Multimodal Care: 5 %
Corticosteroid Injection: 0 %
Reassurance and advice: 10 %
52 Weeks:
Multimodal Care: 5 %
Corticosteroid Injection: 0 %
Reassurance and advice: 7 %
Y CS
Haahr et al., 2003 [64] Y Y Y Y N N Y 3 Months:
Multimodal GP/Ergonomist: 16 %
GP: 14 %
6 Months:
Multimodal GP/Ergonomist: 19 %
GP: 16 %
12 Months:
Multimodal GP/Ergonomist: 22 %
GP: 18 %
Y CS
Jarvik et al., 2009 [61] Y Y Y Y Y Y Y 12 Months:
Multimodal Care: 11.9 %
Surgery: 14.0 %
Y Y
Nagrale et al., 2009 [65] Y Y Y Y Y N Y No drop outs NA CS
Smidt et al., 2002 [66] Y Y Y CS N N Y Multimodal PT: no drop outs
Reassurance and advice: no drop outs
Corticosteroid injection:
12 weeks: 1.6 %
26 weeks: 1.6 %
Y CS
Struijs et al., 2004 [67] Y Y CS Y Y Y Y 6 Weeks:
Multimodal PT: 3.6 %
Brace: 1.5 %
Multimodal PT + Brace: 1.8 %
26 Weeks:
Multimodal PT: 3.6 %
Brace: 5.9 %
Multimodal PT + Brace: 3.6 %
52 Weeks:
Multimodal PT: 5.4 %
Brace: 5.4 %
Multimodal PT + Brace: 3.6 %
Y NA
  1. Acronyms: CS cannot say, GP general practitioner, N no, NA not applicable, PT physical therapy, Y yes