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Table 5 Detailed risk-of-bias assessment using the Cochrane toola

From: A systematic review of thrust manipulation for non-surgical shoulder conditions

  Munday 2007 [40] Boyles 2009 [42] Muth 2012 [43] Haik 2014 [41] Kardouni 2015 [38] Kardouni 2015 [39]
Random sequence generation (selection bias) + + + +
Allocation concealment (selection bias) + + + +
Blinding of participants (performance bias) + +
Blinding of provider (performance bias)
Blinding of outcome assessment—PROs (detection bias) ? ? ?
Incomplete outcome data addressed—short-term (attrition bias) ? ? ? ? ?
Selective reporting (reporting bias) ? ? ?
Other potential bias + + + + + +
TOTAL 7/16 3/16 3/16 8/16 11/16 11/16
  1. aLow risk (+); unclear risk (?); high risk (−)