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Table 1 Eligibility criteria for inclusion and exclusion of studies

From: What are the risks of manual treatment of the spine? A scoping review for clinicians

Criteria for study inclusion Criteria for study exclusion
 • Patients receiving spinal manual treatment
 • Health or legal professionals reporting upon patients receiving spinal manual treatment
Study design Article type
 • Studies whose primary aims address risks of care &/or adverse events & that are:
  • Meta-analyses
  • Systematic reviewsa
  • Controlled studies
  • Surveys
  • Cohort studies
  • Case reportsb
  • Scientific reportsc
• Reviews (without a systematic approach)d
• Editorials, commentaries or opinion articlesd
• Letterse, correspondences or author responses
• Studies whose primary aims address clinical outcomes (but may report occurrence of adverse events)f
• Study protocols
• Conference abstractsg
Intervention Intervention
 • Spinal manual treatment (manipulation or mobilisation), provided by a health professional • Patient self-manipulation
• Spinal manual treatment provided by a lay-person
Outcomes Outcomes
 • Adverse events • Biomechanical or physiological responses as proxy adverse effects
  1. aReviews describing a systematically approached methodology
  2. bPublished as articles, letters or conference abstracts (enabling full breadth of types of adverse events to be evaluated)
  3. cDescribing a rigorous methodology
  4. dWould contribute limited new insights to the literature reviewed
  5. eUnless presenting a new case-report
  6. fLimited utility for gaining new insights if not a primary consideration in study design
  7. gExcluding case reports, where conference abstracts were included