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Table 1 Description and interpretation of items used in a systematic review on spinal manipulation and pressure pain threshold

From: The regional effect of spinal manipulation on the pressure pain threshold in asymptomatic subjects: a systematic literature review

Descriptive items Design Sham Control Comparison with other treatment Source of study sample Age of participants
Mean (range)
N subjects
2/final analysis
3) per treatment group
4) (M/F)
Intervention groups:
Types and area
Treatment area
- “Lesion”
- Standard
Pain measured where in relation to SM?
PPT measured when?
Interpretation Randomized controlled trial and/or cross over studies Description of the group of comparison General population, volunteers, students, to estimate if they were naïve   Describes size of study and indicates if there were losses or exclusions during the study. Treatment group was indicated in relation to area of spine manipulated and comparison groups were described as Sham and Control with an indication of the area where the sham was given “Lesion”: The treating clinicians decides where to apply the SM based on clinical examination.
“Standard”: All study subjects receive the SM in a predetermined area
“Regional” was defined as an area within the dermatome of the area of SM
“Remote” was defined as an area outside this dermatome
PPT could be measured at base-line and at various time intervals after the intervention
  1. M/F: number of Males and Females in the study/SM: Spinal Manipulation/PPT: Pressure Pain Threshold