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Table 3 Compensatory motion amplitudes and principal motions in 97 subjects. Reference values for cluster populations. Annotation: values are presented as mean (standard deviation)

From: Experimental assessment of cervical ranges of motion and compensatory strategies

  Cluster 1 Cluster 2 Cluster 3 Total p
Population (Female) 30 (16) 32 (15) 35 (24) 97 (55)  
Flexion/extension (°) 111 ± 13.6 134.5 ± 8.4 133.2 ± 12.6 126.8 ± 15.7 < 0.001
Rotation (°) 131.4 ± 10.9 153.8 ± 8.1 151.7 ± 7.9 146.1 ± 13.3 < 0.001
Inclination (°) 78.9 ± 9.3 101 ± 9.3 86.2 ± 7 88.8 ± 12.4 0.04
Trans Flexion/Extension (°) −0.7 ± 4.7 0.8 ± 5.2 0.9 ± 4.3 0.4 ± 4.7 ns
Front Flexion/Extension (°) 5 ± 8.1 1.5 ± 8.2 3.9 ± 6.2 3.4 ± 7.6 ns
Sag. Right/Left Rot. (°) 13.8 ± 15.4 28.6 ± 38.6 24.9 ± 39.8 22.7 ± 33.9 ns
Front. Right/Left Rot. (°) 2.6 ± 6 −0.9 ± 7.4 −6.9 ± 7.4 −2 ± 8 < 0.001
Sag. Right/Left Incl. (°) 0 ± 8.6 5.4 ± 9.1 −3.7 ± 7.4 0.4 ± 9.1 0.07
Trans. Right/Left Incl. (°) 17.9 ± 15.5 26.2 ± 26 31.9 ± 16.7 25.7 ± 20.6 0.006