Skip to main content

Table 2 Quality items, explanation, and scoring key for included studies

From: Manipulation-induced hypoalgesia in musculoskeletal pain populations: a systematic critical review and meta-analysis

Quality item Details/explanation Scoring key (total max. 13)
Was PPT measured correctly, and was reliability pre-tested? Valid/reliable technique includes taking 3 measures and averaging all 3 or last 2. Both = 1, Valid technique only = 0.5, Pre-tested reliability only = 0.5, Neither = 0
Was the assessor blinded? Yes = 1, No = 0
Was there appropriate random number generation and concealment? Random sequence generation, e.g. random number generator. Adequate concealment until randomisation occurs, e.g. sequential opaque envelopes. Method appropriate = 1, Method for one component but not both reported and appropriate = 0.5, Method NR = 0
Were active and control interventions well described? Yes = 1, No = 0
Were practitioners appropriate and sufficiently experienced? Practitioner with training in spinal manipulative therapy, ≥3 years clinical experience. Yes = 1, No/NR = 0
Were attempts made to keep participants naïve to study aims? If sham-controlled, were they blinded, and confirmed? If sham group: Blinded? Confirmed? Naïve to study aims?
If no sham group: Naïve to study aims?
If sham: Blinding confirmed = 1, Blinding attempted but not confirmed and/or naïve = 0.5, Not blind/naïve = 0
If no sham: Naïve = 1, Not naïve/NR = 0
Were study conditions controlled? An effort to control temperature, room, interactions, expectations Yes = 1, No/NR = 0
Was there control for psychosocial modifiers/confounders? Statistical control Yes = 1, No = 0
Was a sample size calculation performed and met? Performed based on PPT estimates? Yes = 1, Performed and met but NR based on what = 0.5, Not performed, not performed based on PPT, or not met = 0
Were losses and exclusions reported clearly? Yes = 1, No = 0
Missing data reported? Imputation method reported and appropriate, if required? Yes = 1, No/NR = 0
Were estimates and p-values/CIs reported for between-group differences? Yes = 1, Estimates/CIs NR but p-values non-significant = 1, No = 0
  1. Abbreviations: CIs Confidence intervals, NR Not reported, PPT Pressure pain threshold