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Table 4 Responder Analyses

From: Spinal manipulative therapy and exercise for older adults with chronic low back pain: a randomized clinical trial

% Pain reduction Treatment groups Group differences (95% CI)
  SMT + HEP SEP + HEP HEP SMT + HEP minus HEP SEP + HEP minus HEP SMT + HEP minus SEP + HEP
Week 12a
 No reduction or worsening 13.8 20.3 29.0 −15.2 (− 27.7 to 2.3) −8.7 (− 22.0 to 4.9) − 6.5 (− 18.2 to 5.3)
  ≥ 30% 68.8 65.8 52.6 16.1 (0.8 to 30.5) 13.2 (−2.2 to 27.8) 2.9 (− 11.5 to 17.2)
  ≥ 50% 52.5 43.0 34.2 18.3 (2.7 to 32.6) 8.8 (−6.4 to 23.5) 9.5 (−5.9 to 24.3)
  ≥ 75% 20.0 12.7 10.5 9.5 (−2.0 to 20.7) 2.1 (−8.4 to 12.6) 7.3 (−4.3 to 18.9)
 100% 5.0 6.3 1.3 3.7 (−2.8 to 10.9) 5.0 (−1.8 to 12.7) −1.3 (−9.6 to 6.7)
Week 26b
 No reduction or worsening 25.3 26.6 19.5 5.8 (−7.3 to 18.7) 7.1 (−6.2 to 20.0) − 1.3 (− 14.8 to 12.3)
 ≥ 30% 49.4 53.2 52.0 −2.6 (− 17.8 to 12.8) 1.2 (−14.1 to 16.5) −3.8 (− 18.9 to 11.5)
 ≥ 50% 32.9 30.4 32.5 0.4 (− 14.1 to 14.9) −2.1 (− 16.4 to 12.3) 2.5 (− 11.8 to 16.7)
 ≥ 75% 12.7 16.5 14.3 −1.6 (− 12.7 to 9.3) 2.2 (−9.4 to 13.6) − 3.8 (− 15.0 to 7.4)
 100% 5.1 5.1 5.2 −0.1 (−8.2 to 7.8) − 0.1 (− 8.2 to 7.8) 0.0 (− 7.9 to 7.9)
Week 52c
 No reduction or worsening 23.8 27.9 31.6 −7.8 (−21.5 to 6.1) −3.7 (−17.8 to 10.5) −4.1 (− 17.5 to 9.4)
 ≥ 30% 47.5 49.4 52.6 −5.1 (−20.3 to 10.3) −3.3 (− 18.5 to 12.2) − 1.9 (− 17.0 to 13.4)
 ≥ 50% 35.0 27.9 38.2 − 3.2 (− 17.9 to 11.7) −10.3 (− 24.5 to 4.4) 7.2 (− 7.2 to 21.1)
 ≥ 75% 7.5 15.2 14.5 −7.0 (− 17.4 to 3.1) 0.7 (− 10.8 to 12.1) − 7.7 (− 18.0 to 2.4)
 100% 3.8 5.1 2.6 1.1 (− 5.8 to 8.1) 2.4 (− 4.7 to 9.9) − 1.3 (− 9.0 to 6.1)
  1. Percentage of participants with no reduction or worsening, 30, 50, 75%, or 100% reduction in pain severity
  2. aAnalysis includes 80 participants in the SMT + HEP group, 79 in the SEP + HEP group, and 76 in the HEP group
  3. bAnalysis includes 79 participants in the SMT + HEP group, 79 in the SEP + HEP group, and 77 in the HEP group
  4. cAnalysis includes 80 participants in the SMT + HEP group, 79 in the SEP + HEP group, and 76 in the HEP group
  5. CI confidence interval, HEP home exercise program, SEP supervised exercise program, SMT spinal manipulative therapy