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Table 2 Risk of bias table based on Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) Criteria for high risk of bias studies; randomized controlled trials

From: The effects of spinal manipulation on performance-related outcomes in healthy asymptomatic adult population: a systematic review of best evidence

Author, Year Research Question Randomization Concealment Blinding Similarity at baseline Similarity between arms Outcome measures Percent drop-out Intention to treat Results between sites Level of evidence
Botelho et al., 2012 Y Y CS N N N Y 0% NA NA 1-
Cardinale et al., 2015 Y Y N CS Y Y CS 0% NA NA 1-
Enebo et al., 2003 Y Y CS N CS CS CS 0% CS NA 1-
Engel et al. 2007 Y Y Y CS N N CS 20% N NA 1-
Fox et al., 2006 Y Y CS N Y Y CS CS CS NA 1-
Miller et al., 2000 Y Y N N Y Y CS CS Y NA 1-
Nansel et al., 1992 Y Y CS N CS CS Y 0% Y NA 1-
Nansel et al., 1993 Y Y CS Y CS Y CS 0% Y NA 1-
Palmgren et al., 2009 Y Y Y N CS Y Y 0% Y NA 1-
Passmore et al., 2010 Y Y CS Y CS CS Y 0% Y NA 1-
Pollard et al., 1998 Y Y CS CS CS CS CS CS CS NA 1-
Schwartzbauer et al., 1997 CS Y N N CS CS CS 25% Y NA 1-
Shrier et al., 2006 Y Y CS CS Y Y Y 17.6% Y NA 1-
Stamos-Papastamos et al., 2011 Y Y CS N Y Y Y CS Y NA 1-
Straub et al., 2001 Y Y CS CS CS CS Y 0% Y NA 1-
Ward et al., 2012 N Y N N CS CS CS 5% NA NA 1-
Ward et al., 2013 Y Y Y N N N Y 0% CS NA 1-
Ward et al., 2014 Y Y N N Y Y N 0% Y NA 1-
  1. Y Yes, N No, CS Can’t say, NA Not applicable