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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of study participants stratified by AE after first three visits, mean (n = 771)

From: Do adverse events after manual therapy for back and/or neck pain have an impact on the chance to recover? A cohort study

  All No AE (NRS < 1) (n = 182, 24%) Mild AE (NRS 1–3) (n = 401, 52%) Moderate AE (NRS ≥4) (n = 188, 24%)
Characteristics No. % No. % No. % No. %
Mean age (SD) 36 (12)   36 (12)   36 (12)   36 (12)  
Gender
 Women 545 71 106 58 285 71 154 82
 Men 226 29 76 42 116 29 34 18
Painful area         
 Back 255 33 79 43 123 31 53 28
 Neck 422 55 83 46 219 55 120 64
 Back/Neck 94 12 20 11 59 15 15 8
Duration of pain
 Acute/subacute (≤3 months) 488 63 113 62 260 65 115 61
 Chronic (> 3 months) 283 37 69 32 141 35 73 39
Previous similar complaints 599 78 137 75 312 78 150 80
Pain at baseline (SD)a 771   5 (2)   5 (2)   6 (2)  
Disability at baseline (SD)b 771   2 (2)   2 (2)   3 (2)  
Recovery expectations (SD)c 771   6 (3)   6 (3)   6 (3)  
General health
 Good or better 731 95 173 95 379 95 179 95
 Fair 40 5 9 5 22 6 8 4.5
 Poor 1 < 1 0 0 0 0 1 0.5
Education
 Elementary school 1–9 y 26 3 8 4 10 3 8 4
 High school 10–12 y 268 35 70 39 128 32 70 37
 University 13–15 y 375 49 80 44 205 51 59 48
 Higher academic education ≥16 y 102 13 24 13 58 15 20 11
Distress (SD)d    5 (1)   5 (1)   5 (1)  
Daily smoking 105 14 18 10 56 14 31 17
RCT group
 NMT 244 32 62 34 121 30 61 32
 NMT- no manipulation 265 34 53 29 148 37 64 34
 NMT- no stretching 262 34 67 37 132 33 63 34
  1. Abbreviations: AE adverse events, NRS, number rating scale, SD standard deviation, RCT randomized controlled trial, NMT Naprapathic manual therapy
  2. aAverage of three questions from (0 = no pain and 10 = worse possible pain) how strong is the pain right now, intensity of the worst pain in the last four weeks and average of the last four weeks
  3. bAverage of three questions from (0 = had no effect on function and 10 = impossible to perform activities) affection to function in the last four weeks, affection to social activities and affection to work
  4. cExpectation of asymptomatic pain area in seven weeks (0 = not at all and 10 = very likely)
  5. d Have you felt gloomy and sad in the last four weeks (1 = all the time and 6 = not at all)