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Table 2 Accessibility to chiropractic services and scope of practice (N = 90)

From: The chiropractic workforce: a global review

  n (%)
Access and reimbursement
 Public access to chiropractors
  Direct access 80 (88.9)
  Direct access under supervision of medical doctor 1 (1.1)
  Medical referral needed 2 (2.2)
  Missing 7 (7.8)
 Are chiropractors’ fees covered by government health schemes?
  Yes 16 (17.8)
  No 45 (50.0)
  Missing 29 (32.2)
 Are chiropractors’ fees covered by private health schemes?
  Yes, all major schemes 18 (20.0)
  Yes, some major schemes 28 (31.1)
  No 15 (16.7)
  Missing 29 (32.2)
Definition of chiropractic
 Does the legislation include a definition of chiropractic?
  Yes 25 (27.8)
  No 25 (27.8)
  Missing 40 (44.4)
 Is scope of practice defined in law or regulations?
  Yes 26 (28.9)
  No 26 (28.9)
  Missing 38 (42.2)
 Scope of practice: are chiropractors lawfully permitted to undertake the following activitiesa
  Myofascial dry needling/acupuncture 20 (22.2)
  Prescription of food supplements 24 (26.7)
  Prescription of herbal remedies 19 (21.1)
  Laser therapy 23 (25.6)
  Ultrasound/interferential/shockwave/other electrical therapy 29 (32.2)
  Missing 54 (60.0)
 Are prescribed acts included in the legislation?
  Yes 9 (10.0)
  No 20 (22.2)
  Missing 61 (67.8)
 Does the legislation confer protection of title?
  Yes 39 (43.3)
  No 11 (12.2)
  Missing 49 (44.4)
Diagnostic rights
 In relation to plain film x-rays, are chiropractors lawfully permitteda
  To own and operate x-ray equipment within their clinics 13 (14.4)
  To prescribe/order x-rays (using an outside provider) within the state health system 28 (31.1)
  To prescribe/order x-rays (using an outside provider) privately 35 (38.9)
  Missing 47 (52.2)
 In relation to advanced diagnostic imaging chiropractors lawfully are permitted   
  To prescribe/order advanced MRI/CT scans 22 (24.4)
  Missing 68 (75.6)
 In relation to diagnostic ultrasound, are chiropractors lawfully permitteda:
  To own and operate ultrasound equipment within their clinics 14 (15.6)
  To prescribe/order ultrasound studies (using an outside provider) 32 (35.6)
  Missing 56 (62.2)
 In relation to laboratory tests (blood, urine, etc.), are chiropractors lawfully permitted
  To prescribe/order laboratory tests 29 (32.2)
  No rights 30 (33.3)
  Missing 31 (34.4)
Treatment and prescription rights
 Are/do chiropractors lawfully permitted/have statutory rights in relation to the prescription of pharmaceutical medication?
  Full prescribing rights without additional training 1 (1.1)
  Full prescribing rights with additional training 0
  Limited prescribing rights without additional training 4 (4.4)
  Limited prescribing rights with additional training 4 (4.4)
  No prescribing rights 57 (63.3)
  Missing 24 (26.7)
 Are chiropractors subject to any specific regulations/statutory restrictions in relation to the care of children?
  Yes 57 (63.3)
  No 3 (3.3)
  Missing 30 (33.3)
 Are chiropractors lawfully permitted to authorize sick leave?
  Yes 20 (22.2)
  No 40 (44.4)
  Missing 30 (33.3)
  1. aThis may add up to more than 100%, as multiple answers may apply