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Table 2 Overview of included studies and articles

From: Implementation strategies, and barriers and facilitators for implementation of physical activity at work: a scoping review

# Authors, year, country Design Participants Intervention Methods of implementation Methods of evaluation Authors’ main conclusions Comments
#1 Taylor et al. 2013, USA
Taylor et al. 2014, USA
Taylor et al. 2010, USA
Qualitative and quantitative Office and hospital employees (n = 82) Booster breaks. Cardio, strength, relaxation exercises in groups of 5–15 participants. 15 min. Per day for 6 or 12 months. In lunch or conference rooms at 5 worksites. Kick-off event, “ambassadors” partnership (Break Buddies), prizes and economic incentives, definite schedule for exercise sessions, hand out manuals. Interviews with 24 participants.
Survey: Three open-ended questions on the interventions effect on the lives of the participants and suggestions for improvements and a story path method – before, during, after the intervention
Advantages: Positive feelings and reduced stress, enhanced focus on health, strengthened social interactions and organisational support.
Barriers: Lack of time, motivation and social/organisational support and no variation in the training
Only the most frequently occurring themes are mentioned
#2 Tudor-Locke et al. 2014, USA Mixed methods Office employees (n = 41) The WorkStation Pilot Study. Treadmill workstations. Individually, scheduled rotation among workstations. Two daily sessions of 45 min. For 6 months Kick-off event, prizes and economic incentives, follow-up from the research team, optional support via phone or email Web-based, post-session surveys and focus group interviews Most common reasons for absence were conflict with work tasks, not in the office or sickness absence. Most of the participants were positive toward treadmill workstations. Very low participation rate. 17% responded to recruitment. 5.6% attended baseline.
#3 Justesen et al. 2017, DK
Sjøgaard et al. 2014, DK
Mixed methods Office employees (n = 389) IPET a -Individually tailored cardio, strength, functional exercise. 1 h per week for 2 years. At worksites or in the local area. Information meetings for the participants, “change agents”, instructors/supervision, handout manuals, individually adjusted training, log books/training journals Survey questions for all employees, fieldnotes from meetings with change agents, survey and focus group interview with change agents, and survey and interview with middle management Middle management plays a major role in the implementation of physical exercise. But they are often unsure about this role and tend to leave all responsibility to the top management Only the middle manager’s role in the implementation process is evaluated.
#4 Kinnafik et al. 2018, UK
Shepherd et al. 2015, UK
Qualitative and quantitative University employees (n = 46) Indoor bicycles HIIT b program. In groups. 18–25 min. 3 times per week for 10 weeks. In close proximity to the worksite. Information meetings for the participants, flexible schedule for exercise sessions, instructors/supervision, individually adjusted training Focus group interviews guided by the RE-AIM framework and observation notes from focus group interviews HIIT is an acceptable and efficient method of exercise for employees who are insufficiently physically active. Social factors influenced the level of adherence. Despite this, participants were reluctant to continue with the HIIT training. 12 participants in the evaluation
#5 Lawton et al. 2014, UK
McEachan et al. 2011, UK
Mixed methods Employees at a bus company, hospital, university, city council, and government agency (n = 1260) “AME for Activity” (Awareness, Motivation, Environment). A toolkit of activities to increase physical activity. Team based. 3 months. 44 worksites. Kick-off event, “ambassadors” focus on visual design, flexible schedule for exercise sessions, hand out manuals, follow-up from the research team Survey, focus group interview and fieldnotes The intervention is efficient under ideal circumstances, which entail commitment by facilitators, susceptibility and engagement by employees, and the physical surroundings  
#6 Andersen & Zebis 2014, DK
Andersen et al. 2011, DK
Quantitative Office employees (n = 198) To reduce musculoskeletal disorders. Strength training with elastic bands. Individually. 1 exercise for either 2 or 12 min. Daily for 10 weeks. At office worksites. Information meetings for the participants, instructors/supervision, hand out manuals, planned progression, log books/ training journals, optional support via phone or email Definitions of reach, dose delivered, dose received, fidelity and satisfaction. Surveys and training journals The strength training was generally well accepted by the participants, but more variation is needed.
Lack of time and difficulties following illness were the greatest barriers
116 participants in the evaluation
#7 Mayer et al. 2013, USA
Mayer et al. 2013, USA
Qualitative and quantitative Firefighters, fulltime (n = 94) Supervised exercise. Strengthening of back and core muscles. 2 sessions of 10–15 min. Per week for 24 weeks. At fire stations. Flexible schedule for exercise sessions, instructors/supervision, planned progression Focus group interviews. Three with employees and one with leaders. Eight open-ended questions Lack of self-motivation, support from colleagues and time during the workday were the greatest barriers 27 participants in the evaluation
#8 Bredahl et al. 2014, DK
Andersen et al. 2010, DK
Qualitative Office employees (n = 573) VIMS c. Five strength training exercises with dumbbells for shoulders, neck and arms. 1 h per week for 20 weeks. At the worksites or in the local area. Group exercise to enhance social relationships, focus on visual design, definite schedule for exercise sessions, instructors/supervision, planned progression, log books/ training journals, optional support via phone or email Semi-deductive, structured thematical interviews. Three themes: organisation, implementation, and individual The greatest barrier for participation was the internal working culture. A clear connection between management’s intentions and an actual implementation is crucial. Furthermore, it is important to structure the intervention and secure flexibility during the working hours, to enable employees to participate. 18 participants in the evaluation
  1. aIPET Intelligent Physical Exercise Training, b HIIT High Intensity Interval Training, c VIMS company adjusted intelligent exercise for pain in neck and shoulders