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Table 3 Mean (SD) and p-value for between group differences using linear mixed models

From: Addition of MoodGYM to physical treatments for chronic low back pain: A randomized controlled trial

  Baseline Post-treatment (max. 8-weeks) 6 months 12 months Mean differences between groups (0–12 months)
Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD) p value
Outcome Control group (n = 54) Intervention group (n = 54) Control group (n = 54) Intervention group (n = 52) Control group (n = 52) Group 2 Intervention (n = 51) Control group (n = 49) Intervention group (n = 49)
Primary
 RMD 9.9 (4.7) 9.9 (4.2) 5.8 (5.1) 5.4 (3.8) 5.0 (4.6) 5.1 (4.0) 5.3 (5.1) 4.2 (3.7) 0.70
 PSEQ 37.8 (13.0) 40.1 (10.0) 44.3 (13.8) 45.2 (12.0) 45.7 (11.5) 45.9 (11.7) 47.6 (12.2) 50.2 (9.4) 0.52
Secondary
 Pain and function
  PNRS 4.9 (2.05) 5.1 (1.8) 2.9 (2.0) 2.8 (2.0) 3.2 (2.2) 3.2 (2.2) 4.0 (2.1) 3.0 (2.1) 0.95
  WAI 5.6 (2.1) 5.7 (2.1) 6.3 (2.3) 6.5 (2.0) 6.4 (2.3) 6.5 (1.9) 6.2 (2.5) 6.8 (2.2) 0.62
 Psychological
  PCS Total 20.9 (12.5) 20.0 (11.3) 14.9 (10.5) 15.5 (11.6) 11.5 (8.8) 13.4 (9.8) 12.8 (10.1) 11.8 (10.0) 0.89
  PCS Rumination 7.6 (4.3) 7.6 (4.2) 5.8 (4.1) 5.6 (4.1) 4.6 (3.7) 5.1 (3.7) 5.1 (4.2) 4.5 (3.7) 0.97
  PCS Magnification 4.2 (3.0) 3.6 (2.8) 2.8 (2.2) 2.9 (2.6) 2.1 (1.8) 2.4 (2.2) 2.6 (2.2) 2.1 (2.5) 0.69
  PCS Helplessness 9.1 (6.0) 8.9 (5.6) 6.4 (4.9) 7.0 (5.7) 4.8 (3.9) 6.0 (4.6) 5.1 (4.4) 5.2 (4.8) 0.61
  DASS21 Total 16.8 (12.6) 15.0 (10.1) 13.3 (11.3) 12.2 (9.5) 11.0 (9.0) 10.8 (7.3) 11.2 (9.4) 9.8 (8.1) 0.49
  DASS21 Depression 5.5 (5.3) 5.3 (4.8) 4.2 (4.5) 4.2 (4.6) 3.0 (3.0) 3.7 (3.8) 3.5 (3.5) 3.2 (3.5) 0.98
  DASS21 Anxiety 3.6 (3.6) 2.8 (2.9) 3.0 (3.3) 2.4 (2.7) 2.6 (3.0) 2.0 (2.1) 2.7 (3.3) 2.1 (2.5) 0.19
  DASS21 Stress 7.7 (4.7) 7.0 (3.9) 6.1 (4.3) 5.6 (3.3) 5.4 (3.8) 5.2 (3.1) 5.0 (3.7) 4.4 (3.2) 0.41
  1. Note: The baseline within-group means were calculated from baseline data. The within-group mean estimates for post-treatment 6 and 12 – months were calculated from linear mixed models