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Table 4 Outcomes and outcome measurements identified in the ‘Life impact’ core domain for PGP and LPP respectively

From: Outcomes and outcomes measurements used in intervention studies of pelvic girdle pain and lumbopelvic pain: a systematic review

Life Impact PGP LPP
Pain-related outcomes
 Pain Intensity VAS [23,24,25,26,27,28,29,30,31,32,33,34,35,36,37,38,39,40,41,42,43,44,45,46] NRS [47,48,49,50,51] Not specified [52, 53] PGQ [20] VAS [54, 55, 56,57,58,59,60,61,62,63,64,65,66,67,68,69,70,71,72,73,74,75,76,77,78,79,80,81,82,83,81] NRS [22, 84, 56, 70, 85,86,87,88,89,90,91,92] Personal pain history (PPH) [88] Not specified [12, 93,94,95,96,97,98,99,100,101] McGill Pain Questionnaire [18, 56, 70, 102, 103] POM-VAS [103] Chronic grade pain scale [56] RMDQ [87] QBPDS [104] 5 point scale [105]
 Pain location Body chart [30, 41] Body chart [61, 67, 69, 72, 86, 106] Questionnaire [42]
 Pain frequency / Questionnaire [68]
 Pain prevalence / Self-report [97, 106,107,108,109] Questionnaire [57] Not specified [62]
 Pain behaviour / Pain Behavior Scale [102]
Functional outcomes
 Function ODI [23, 24, 36, 39, 43] DRI [23, 24, 33, 41, 43] PSFS [35, 36, 51] RMDQ [44, 51] QBPDS [27] PGQ [39, 48,49,50] ADL questionnaire [27, 42] Majeed score [45] Not specified [52] VAS [28] ODI [21, 56, 66, 70, 86, 91, 108, 110] DRI [56, 106] PSFS RMDQ [19, 84, 56, 62, 70, 87, 102] QBPDS [56, 102] PGQ [56, 70, 86] VAS [18, 19, 102, 106] Likert scale [22, 63, 69, 76] Majeed score [111] BPFS [78] Not specified [90, 95, 96, 100, 112, 113] Inventory of functional status after childbirth [69] Endurance of walking/sitting/standing – self report [111]
 Functional mobility Functional load transfer tests [20] TUG test [37] The pregnancy mobility index (PMI) [73, 82]
 Physical activity levels / Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire (PPAQ) [67, 92] Exercise diaries [110] Self-report [57]
 Disability ODI [38, 47] Not specified [52] ODI [68, 72, 75, 77, 82, 85] RMDQ [73, 74, 89, 92] QBPDS [88] PGQ [92] DRI [57, 59, 71, 81] Not specified [12, 58, 93, 95, 98, 114] Self-report interview [109] Bournemouth disability Questionnaire (BDQ) [90]
 Work disability / Not specified [100]
Quality of Life (QOL)/health status
 QoL SF-36 [38, 48] EuroQol/EQ-5D [23, 24, 48, 49] EQ-VAS [23] NHP [40] Hopkins symptom checklist (HSCL) [43] Not specified [34] SF-36 [56, 86] EuroQol/EQ-5D [56, 68, 86] EQ-VAS [68] Not specified [114] NHP [56] Assessment of QOL Questionnaire [56] WHO-QOL questionnaire [75] SF-12 [62] ODI [64]
 Health status / general health SF-36 [33, 48] EuroQol [47] SF-8 SF-36 [18, 19, 102, 103] EuroQol/EQ-5D [18, 102] SF-8 [89] Not specified [88, 96, 100]
 Perceived health NHP [29] /
Other
 Patient satisfaction (with treatment/ life satisfaction) Likert scale [27, 115] Patient report [38] Questionnaire [68, 86] Not specified [56, 95, 96, 100] Satisfaction with life scale (SWLS) [63] Verbal self-rating [90]
 Perceived improvement Likert scale [29] IPA questionnaire (Effect on autonomy/participation) [18, 19, 102] Global effect 7-point scale [18, 19, 102] Likert scale [56, 62, 81, 86] VAS [59] Questionnaire [86] Patient’s Global Impression of Change test [85, 91] Percentage improvement reported by patient [90] Not specified [58, 93, 96]
 Patient expectations of treatment / VAS [73, 102] 11 NRS no expectation to full recovery) [86]
Psychological Outcomes
 Fear avoidance/ fear of movement / FABQ [57, 72, 90] Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia [18, 19, 102] Not specified [56]
 Pain catastrophizing / Pain Catastrophizing Scale [102] Not specified [56]
 General mental health / Beck Depression inventory [102] Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire [102]
 Anxiety / The State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) [21, 67, 71, 73]
 Wellbeing / VAS [68] Not specified [96]
 Depression / Postpartum Depression Scale [69] Goldberg Depression inventory [62]
 Confidence 11 point numerical rating scale [48, 49] /
 Self-efficacy Pain self-efficacy Questionnaire [35] /
Sleep/fatigue outcomes
 Trouble sleeping / Self-report (frequency of waking/ delayed onset of sleep) [85, 86]
 Fatigue (morning and evening) VAS 0–100 (encouraged to complete each week on same day at same time) [29] /