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Table 4 Outcomes and outcome measurements identified in the ‘Life impact’ core domain for PGP and LPP respectively

From: Outcomes and outcomes measurements used in intervention studies of pelvic girdle pain and lumbopelvic pain: a systematic review

Life Impact PGP LPP
Pain-related outcomes
 Pain Intensity VAS [23,24,25,26,27,28,29,30,31,32,33,34,35,36,37,38,39,40,41,42,43,44,45,46]
NRS [47,48,49,50,51]
Not specified [52, 53]
PGQ [20]
VAS [54, 55, 56,57,58,59,60,61,62,63,64,65,66,67,68,69,70,71,72,73,74,75,76,77,78,79,80,81,82,83,81]
NRS [22, 84, 56, 70, 85,86,87,88,89,90,91,92]
Personal pain history (PPH) [88]
Not specified [12, 93,94,95,96,97,98,99,100,101]
McGill Pain Questionnaire [18, 56, 70, 102, 103]
POM-VAS [103]
Chronic grade pain scale [56]
RMDQ [87]
QBPDS [104]
5 point scale [105]
 Pain location Body chart [30, 41] Body chart [61, 67, 69, 72, 86, 106]
Questionnaire [42]
 Pain frequency / Questionnaire [68]
 Pain prevalence / Self-report [97, 106,107,108,109]
Questionnaire [57]
Not specified [62]
 Pain behaviour / Pain Behavior Scale [102]
Functional outcomes
 Function ODI [23, 24, 36, 39, 43]
DRI [23, 24, 33, 41, 43]
PSFS [35, 36, 51]
RMDQ [44, 51]
QBPDS [27]
PGQ [39, 48,49,50]
ADL questionnaire [27, 42]
Majeed score [45]
Not specified [52]
VAS [28]
ODI [21, 56, 66, 70, 86, 91, 108, 110]
DRI [56, 106]
PSFS
RMDQ [19, 84, 56, 62, 70, 87, 102]
QBPDS [56, 102]
PGQ [56, 70, 86]
VAS [18, 19, 102, 106]
Likert scale [22, 63, 69, 76]
Majeed score [111]
BPFS [78]
Not specified [90, 95, 96, 100, 112, 113]
Inventory of functional status after childbirth [69]
Endurance of walking/sitting/standing – self report [111]
 Functional mobility Functional load transfer tests [20]
TUG test [37]
The pregnancy mobility index (PMI) [73, 82]
 Physical activity levels / Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire
(PPAQ) [67, 92]
Exercise diaries [110]
Self-report [57]
 Disability ODI [38, 47]
Not specified [52]
ODI [68, 72, 75, 77, 82, 85]
RMDQ [73, 74, 89, 92]
QBPDS [88]
PGQ [92]
DRI [57, 59, 71, 81]
Not specified [12, 58, 93, 95, 98, 114]
Self-report interview [109]
Bournemouth disability Questionnaire (BDQ) [90]
 Work disability / Not specified [100]
Quality of Life (QOL)/health status
 QoL SF-36 [38, 48]
EuroQol/EQ-5D [23, 24, 48, 49]
EQ-VAS [23]
NHP [40]
Hopkins symptom checklist (HSCL) [43]
Not specified [34]
SF-36 [56, 86]
EuroQol/EQ-5D [56, 68, 86]
EQ-VAS [68]
Not specified [114]
NHP [56]
Assessment of QOL Questionnaire [56]
WHO-QOL questionnaire [75]
SF-12 [62]
ODI [64]
 Health status / general health SF-36 [33, 48]
EuroQol [47]
SF-8
SF-36 [18, 19, 102, 103]
EuroQol/EQ-5D [18, 102]
SF-8 [89]
Not specified [88, 96, 100]
 Perceived health NHP [29] /
Other
 Patient satisfaction (with treatment/ life satisfaction) Likert scale [27, 115]
Patient report [38]
Questionnaire [68, 86]
Not specified [56, 95, 96, 100]
Satisfaction with life scale (SWLS) [63]
Verbal self-rating [90]
 Perceived improvement Likert scale [29] IPA questionnaire (Effect on autonomy/participation) [18, 19, 102]
Global effect 7-point scale [18, 19, 102]
Likert scale [56, 62, 81, 86]
VAS [59]
Questionnaire [86]
Patient’s Global Impression of Change test [85, 91]
Percentage improvement reported by patient [90]
Not specified [58, 93, 96]
 Patient expectations of treatment / VAS [73, 102]
11 NRS no expectation to full recovery) [86]
Psychological Outcomes
 Fear avoidance/ fear of movement / FABQ [57, 72, 90]
Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia [18, 19, 102]
Not specified [56]
 Pain catastrophizing / Pain Catastrophizing Scale [102]
Not specified [56]
 General mental health / Beck Depression inventory [102]
Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire [102]
 Anxiety / The State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) [21, 67, 71, 73]
 Wellbeing / VAS [68]
Not specified [96]
 Depression / Postpartum Depression Scale [69]
Goldberg Depression inventory [62]
 Confidence 11 point numerical rating scale [48, 49] /
 Self-efficacy Pain self-efficacy Questionnaire [35] /
Sleep/fatigue outcomes
 Trouble sleeping / Self-report (frequency of waking/ delayed onset of sleep) [85, 86]
 Fatigue (morning and evening) VAS 0–100 (encouraged to complete each week on same day at same time) [29] /