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Table 2 Outcomes and statistical methods

From: Potential treatment effect modifiers for manipulative therapy for children complaining of spinal pain.Secondary analyses of a randomised controlled trial

Outcomes Definition Statistical method
Number of recurrences of spinal pain (3–27 months follow up) in relation to individual follow-up time i) A positive answer on the weekly SMS for spinal pain
ii) Minimum of 1 week without report of spinal pain prior to the recurrence
A hierarchical negative binomial regression model with pain free weeks included as exposure time.
Intervention effects were expressed as incidence rate ratios
Length of spinal pain episodes The number of consecutive weeks the child was affected by spinal pain A mixed effects linear regression model with subject as random effect, outcome log transformed. Intervention effects were expressed as β-coefficient
Total number of pain weeks in relation to individual follow-up time Total number of weeks a child was affected by spinal pain in the entire follow-up period A hierarchical negative binomial regression model with follow-up time included as exposure time.
Intervention effects were expressed as incidence rate ratio
Global perceived effect after 2 weeks Dichotomized into two groups: “Much better” (1) and “Slightly better, the same or worse” (2 to 7). A logistic regression model.
Intervention effects were expressed as odds ratios
Change in pain intensity after 2 weeks Rated on an 11-point Numerical Rating Scale with ‘0’ being ‘worst pain’ and ‘10’ being ‘no pain’ A linear regression model.
Intervention effects were expressed as β-coefficient