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Table 3 Descriptive data (Mean (SD)) of all outcome variables included in an RCT on spinal manipulation for each type of intervention and at each time point

From: The effect of a single spinal manipulation on cardiovascular autonomic activity and the relationship to pressure pain threshold: a randomized, cross-over, sham-controlled trial

OutcomesSpinal manipulationSham
BaselinePost 1Post 2Post 3BaselinePost 1Post 2Post 3
HR (bpm)Mean72.068.166.966.771.668.467.067.4
N = 41SD11.
RRi (ms)Mean856904921924857896917912
N = 41SD134136137140114115126128
Log HF-HRV (ms2)Mean2.9713.0963.2053.1942.9813.0863.1073.141
N = 41SD0.5120.5110.5150.4820.4490.4790.4810.483
HF normalized unitMean66.765.862.763.767.665.363.161.9
N = 41SD18.017.012.715.515.215.316.117.6
Log LF-HRV (ms2)Mean2.6102.7392.9402.8982.6032.7582.8312.876
N = 41SD0.3580.4030.4170.3980.3830.4260.3920.367
Log LF/HFMean− 0.361− 0.358− 0.265− 0.296− 0.378− 0.328− 0.276− 0.265
N = 41SD0.3980.3890.2590.3190.3410.3380.3420.375
Log RMSSD (ms)Mean1.6471.7331.7871.7811.6511.7171.7401.754
N = 41SD0.2530.2570.2490.2440.2410.2450.2280.229
Log SDNN (ms)Mean1.6951.7501.8111.8111.6931.7401.7691.786
N = 41SD0.1560.1840.1800.1840.1690.1880.1720.172
SBP (mmHg)Mean115.1113.6114.9115.9115.8117.6117.6118.7
N = 30SD13.
DBP (mmHg)Mean56.455.356.757.256.958.158.260.3
N = 30SD8.
MBP (mmHg)Mean72.270.872.573.172.974.074.076.1
N = 30SD8.
LF-SBP (mm2Hg)Mean5.9076.9546.8587.4205.6375.7827.2336.949
N = 30SD4.4015.4494.8115.1223.8594.4085.2485.409
Log PPT local (kPa)Mean2.5832.6152.6212.6162.5792.6142.6052.604
N = 41SD0.1610.1700.1660.1690.1660.1510.1670.178
PPT distal (kPa)Mean526.7570.9576.8578.2481.8535.0520.7535.7
N = 37SD157.2189.9187.9181.1153.3165.4177.2160.2
  1. Abbreviations:
  2. SD standard deviation; HR heart rate in beats per minute; RRi intervals between normal beats; Log logarithm with base 10; HF high frequency; HF normalized unit: HF/(HF + LF) x 100; LF low frequency; RMSSD: root mean square of the successive differences between normal heartbeats; SDNN standard deviation of the inter beat interval of normal sinus beats; SBP systolic blood pressure; DBP diastolic blood pressure; MBP mean blood pressure; PPT pressure pain threshold in kilopascal