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Table 2 Comparison of pain (primary outcome) before and after intervention

From: Immediate effects of a lumbar spine manipulation on pain sensitivity and postural control in individuals with nonspecific low back pain: a randomized controlled trial

OutcomeGroupMean pre-
(standard deviation)
Mean post-
(standard deviation)
Post-Pre
(95% IC)
Subjective pain intensityControl3.8 (± 2.7)2.8 (± 2.6)−1.0
(− 3.3; 1.3)
Intervention4.5 (± 1.6)2.9 (± 1.2)−1.6
(−2.8; − 0.4)
Pressure pain threshold
(Spinal Process)
Control7,0 (± 2,5)6,8 (± 2,3)−0.2
(−2.2; 1.9)
Intervention6,1 (± 2,3)6.5 (± 2,6)0.4
(−1.7; 2.5)
Pressure pain threshold
(Right Erector)
Control7.2 (± 2.3)6.8 (± 2.5)−0.4
(−2.4; 1.7)
Intervention6.8 (± 2.6)7.3 (± 2.5)0.5
(−1.7; 2.6)
Pressure pain threshold
(Left Erector)
Control7.1 (± 2.3)7.1 (± 2.3)0.0
(−1.9; 1.9)
Intervention6.8 (± 2.9)7.3 (± 2.6)0.5
(−1.8; 2.8)