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Table 2 Comparison of pain (primary outcome) before and after intervention

From: Immediate effects of a lumbar spine manipulation on pain sensitivity and postural control in individuals with nonspecific low back pain: a randomized controlled trial

Outcome Group Mean pre-
(standard deviation)
Mean post-
(standard deviation)
Post-Pre
(95% IC)
Subjective pain intensity Control 3.8 (± 2.7) 2.8 (± 2.6) −1.0
(− 3.3; 1.3)
Intervention 4.5 (± 1.6) 2.9 (± 1.2) −1.6
(−2.8; − 0.4)
Pressure pain threshold
(Spinal Process)
Control 7,0 (± 2,5) 6,8 (± 2,3) −0.2
(−2.2; 1.9)
Intervention 6,1 (± 2,3) 6.5 (± 2,6) 0.4
(−1.7; 2.5)
Pressure pain threshold
(Right Erector)
Control 7.2 (± 2.3) 6.8 (± 2.5) −0.4
(−2.4; 1.7)
Intervention 6.8 (± 2.6) 7.3 (± 2.5) 0.5
(−1.7; 2.6)
Pressure pain threshold
(Left Erector)
Control 7.1 (± 2.3) 7.1 (± 2.3) 0.0
(−1.9; 1.9)
Intervention 6.8 (± 2.9) 7.3 (± 2.6) 0.5
(−1.8; 2.8)