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Table 3 Twitter Tone Index (TTI)

From: Misinformation about spinal manipulation and boosting immunity: an analysis of Twitter activity during the COVID-19 crisis

Tweet Content

Coding Description

Example Hit (bold = search terms)


A tweet that suggests directly or indirectly that a SMT/profession improves or boosts immunity

-#chiropractic boosts your immune system up to 200%


Factual, not misleading (as defined by WHO etc.)

-Wash your hands often. #chiropractic #immunity


A tweet that directly or indirectly refutes a SMT/profession for promoting or boosting immunity.

-Naturopathic treatment can boost the immune system (screen capture). This is false!

Not Relevant

A tweet with unrelated content

-What are the roadblocks for treating osteosarcoma with immunotherapy?