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Table 1 Risk of Bias Tables

From: The clinical utility of routine spinal radiographs by chiropractors: a rapid review of the literature

Risk of Bias table: Diagnostic Studies
Author, Year Phase 1.1 1.2 1.3 R C 2.1 2.2 R C 3.1 3.2 R C 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 R Overall Ax
Gregory, 1998 [34] 1 Y N/A N H L Y N/A L L CS Y U L N/A Y Y Y L At Risk of Bias
Harrison, 2002 [35] 1 CS N/A Y U L CS Y U L Y CS U L N/A Y Y Y L At Risk of Bias
Frymoyer, 1986 [36] 1 Y N/A CS L L Y CS U L CS Y U L N/A Y Y Y L At Risk of Bias
Harrison, 2003 [37] 1 CS N/A Y U L CS Y U L Y CS U L N/A Y Y Y L At Risk of Bias
Wight, 1999 [38] 1 CS N/A Y U L CS N/A U L Y CS U L N/A Y Y Y L At Risk of Bias
Rosok, 1993 [39] 1 Y N/A CS L L N N/A U L Y Y L L N/A Y Y CS L At Risk of Bias
Haas, 1992 [40] 1 CS N/A N H L CS N/A U L Y Y L L N/A Y Y Y L At Risk of Bias
Haas, 1992 [41] 1 CS N/A N H L CS N/A U L Y Y L L N/A Y Y Y L At Risk of Bias
Leboeuf, 1989 [42] 1 Y N/A Y L L Y Y L L Y CS U L N/A Y Y Y L At Risk of Bias
Phillips, 1986 [43] 1 Y N/A CS L L CS N/A U L CS Y U L N/A Y Y Y L At Risk of Bias
Rudy, 2015 [44] 2 N N/A Y U L Y Y L L CS Y H L N/A Y Y Y L At Risk of Bias
McAviney, [45] 2 Y Y N L L Y Y L L Y Y L L N/A Y Y Y L Low Risk of Bias
McGregor, 1995 [46] 2 Y Y CS L L Y N/A L L CS Y L L Y Y Y Y L Low Risk of Bias
  1. Y yes; N no; CS Can’t Say; H high; L low; N/A not applicable; U Unclear; R Risk; C Concern
  2. Legend: Diagnostic Studies, 1.1 Consecutive or Random Sample of Patients, 1.2 Case-control Design Avoided, 1.3 Avoid Inappropriate Exclusions, 2.1 Blinded Index Test Interpretation, 2.2 If Threshold Used, Pre-specified, 3.1 Reference Standard Classifies Condition, 3.2 Blinded Reference Test Interpretation, 4.1 Appropriate Interval Between Tests, 4.2 All Receive Reference Standard, 4.3 All Receive Same Reference Standard, 4.4 All Patients Included in Analysis