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Table 3 Results for cervical spine physical examination procedures (N = 51)

From: Inter-examinerreliability study of physical examination procedures to assess the cervical spine

Procedure Cohen’s Kappa
(unadjusted)
95 % Confidence Interval
(Cohen’s K)
Raw Agreement(%) Bias Index Prevalence Index Prevalence and Bias Adjusted Kappa
(PABAK)
95 % Confidence Interval
(PABAK)
Examiner 1
(Negative/ Positive findings)
Examiner 2
(Negative/ Positive findings)
Sharp Purser N/Aa N/Aa 100 0 1 1 N/Aa 51/0 51/0
Unilateral C2 Kick Test to left with right Side Bending N/Aa N/Aa 100 0 1 1 N/Aa 51/0 51/0
Unilateral C2 Kick Test to right with left Side Bending N/Aa N/Aa 100 0 1 1 N/Aa 51/0 51/0
Bilateral C2 Kick Test - Side to Side comparison (asymmetry criterion) 0.93 0.79-1.0 98 -0.02 0.67 0.96 0.92-1.0 42/9 43/8
Flexion Rotation Test 0.92 0.80-1.0 96 0.04 0.25 0.92 0.87–0.98 33/18 31/20
Unilateral Modified Lateral Shear Test (right to left) 0.31 -0.02-0.64 82 0.09 0.71 0.65 0.54–0.75 46/5 41/10
Unilateral Modified Lateral Shear Test (left to right) 0.41 0.07–0.74 84 0.04 0.69 0.69 0.59–0.79 44/7 42/9
Bilateral Modified Lateral Shear Test - Side to Side comparison (asymmetry criterion) 0.77 0.52-1.0 94 0.06 0.71 0.88 0.82–0.95 45/6 42/9
Sub-occipital muscle palpation with verbalization of pain provocation 0.64 0.43–0.85 82 -0.06 -0.12 0.65 0.54–0.75 21/30 24/27
Sub-occipital muscle palpation for ‘tightness’ without verbalization of pain provocation 0.58 0.35–0.81 80 -0.04 0.25 0.61 0.50–0.72 31/20 33/18
Segmental mobility testing with verbalization of pain provocation (bmid cervical spine) 0.46 0.20–0.72 76 0.08 0.37 0.53 0.41–0.65 37/14 33/18
Segmental mobility testing without verbalization of pain provocation (bmid cervical spine) 0.45 0.21–0.70 73 0.08 -0.02 0.45 0.33–0.57 27/24 23/28
Segmental mobility testing with verbalization of pain provocation (clower cervical spine) 0.75 0.56–0.94 88 -0.04 0.25 0.76 0.68–0.85 31/20 33/18
Segmental mobility testing without Verbalization of pain provocation (clower cervical spine) 0.35 0.06–0.64 76 0.08 0.53 0.53 0.41–0.65 41/10 37/14
  1. aKappa values did not compute due to 100 % prevalence of negative findings
  2. bMid cervical facet joints = C2-3, C3-4 and C4-5
  3. cLower cervical facet joints = C5-6, C6-7 and C7-T1