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Table 1 Subject Characteristics: Medicare Part B Beneficiaries with Spinal Pain, 2012–2016

From: Association between chiropractic care and use of prescription opioids among older medicare beneficiaries with spinal pain: a retrospective observational study

Characteristic Non-recipients
(n = 46,593)
Recipients
(n = 9,356)
P
Age in years: n (%)  < 0.0001
65–74 26,189 (56.2) 6420 (68.6)
75–84 14,534 (31.2) 2324 (24.8)
85 +  5870 (12.6) 612 (6.5)
Sex: n (%)     < 0.0001
Male 14,285 (30.7) 3179 (34)
Female 32,308 (69.3) 6177 (66)
Race/ethnicity: n (%)  < 0.0001
Black 4722 (10.1) 342 (3.7)
White 34,405 (73.8) 8351 (89.3)
Other/ Unknown 7466 (16) 663 (7.1)
Diagnosis category: n (%)  < 0.0001
1 31,389 (67.4) 5685 (60.8)
2 13,975 (30) 3530 (37.7)
3 1229 (2.6) 141 (1.5)  
Mean Charlson comorbidity score 1.71 1.17  < 0.0001
  1. Non-recipients = subjects who received Primary Care only for spinal pain; Recipients = subjects who received both Primary Care and Chiropractic Care for spinal pain; % = percentage of cohort; Charlson = Charlson Co-morbidity Score; Diagnosis Categories 1, 2, and 3 indicate progressively more unfavorable prognosis (1 = more favorable; 3 = less favorable); P = p-value