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Table 2 Baseline demographics and clinical characteristics (mean (SD) unless otherwise noted)

From: Multidisciplinary integrative care versus chiropractic care for low back pain: a randomized clinical trial

Parameter Treatment group
Chiropractic Care Integrated Care
n 100 101
Age 52.3 (12.4) 52.6 (12.5)
Female, n (%) 60 (60.0%) 69 (68.3%)
Non-white race, n (%) 5 (5.1%) 1 (1.0%)
Hispanic, n (%) 3 (3.0%) 5 (5.0%)
College degree, n (%) 47 (47.5%) 52 (51.5%)
Household income < $35,000, n (%) 18 (18.3%) 16 (19.8%)
Employed, n (%) 71 (71.0%) 66 (66.0%)
BMI 29.5 (5.8) 27.5 (5.2)
Duration [years] 9.2 (10.1) 8.3 (9.9)
 Median [25th to 75th percentiles] 5.0 [2.0 to 15.0] 4.0 [2.0 to 11.0]
Chronic (current episode ≥ 12 weeks), n (%) 97 (97.0%) 98 (97.0%)
Radiation to lower extremity, n (%) 18 (18.0) 21 (20.8)
Back pain associated with trauma
 Auto accident, n (%) 5 (5.0%) 4 (4.0%)
 Work or leisure time accident, n (%) 21 (21.0%) 21 (20.8%)
Age at first episode of back pain 35.7 (15.0) 35.7 (15.0)
Prior treatment, n (%) 88 (88.0%) 90 (89.1%)
Depression, n (%) 12 (12.0%) 11 (10.9%)
Other pain, n (%) 88 (88.0%) 89 (88.1%)
Tobacco use, n (%) 9 (9.0%) 10 (9.9%)
Low back pain intensity [0 to 10] 5.4 (1.5) 5.1 (1.6)
Low back disability (Roland Morris) [0 to 100] 40.9 (21.3) 38.1 (19.2)
Quality of life (EuroQol) [− 0.109 to 1]* 0.76 (0.10) 0.79 (0.06)
Medication use (days/week) 2.8 (2.4) 2.9 (2.4)
Preferred intervention, n (%)
 None 19 (19.4%) 17 (17.2%)
 Acupuncture and oriental medicine 25 (25.5%) 23 (23.2%)
 Chiropractic 19 (19.4%) 17 (17.2%)
 Cognitive behavioral therapy 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%)
 Exercise therapy 11 (11.2%) 11 (11.1%)
 Massage 22 (22.4%) 31 (31.3%)
 Medication 1 (1.0%) 0 (0.0%)
 Self-care education 1 (1.0%) 0 (0.0%)
Expectation of improvement at the end of treatment (1–5) ^ 1.80 (0.53) 1.77 (0.46)
  1. Lower scores indicate lower disability;
  2. *Higher scores indicate higher quality of life;
  3. ^Lower scores indicate higher expectations