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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of participants within the ChiCo cohort (N = 2818)

From: Patients with low back pain presenting for chiropractic care who want diagnostic imaging are more likely to receive referral for imaging: a cross-sectional study

Female (n/N, %) 1151/2818 (40.8)
Age, years (mean, SD) 44.5 (13.7)
Education level (n/N, %)  
 High school or less 311/2008 (15.5)
 Vocational training 590/2008 (29.4)
 University education 1033/2008 (51.4)
 Other (undefined) 74/2008 (3.7)
Back Beliefs Questionnaire (BBQ)a, /45 (mean, SD) 32.3 (5.9)
Low back pain intensity, /10 (mean, SD) 6.7 (2.1)
Pain duration (n/N, %)  
 4 weeks or less 1994/2818 (70.8)
 More than 4 weeks 824/2818 (29.2)
Low back disability, /100 (mean, SD) 54.9 (23.9)
Previous episodes (n/N, %)  
 None 330/1971 (16.7)
 1–3 732/1971 (37.1)
 More than 3 909/1971 (46.1)
Leg pain  
 No leg pain 2000/2818 (71.0)
 Leg pain without neurologic symptoms 653/2818 (23.2)
 Leg pain with neurologic symptoms 165/2818 (5.9)
Clinical suspicion of serious pathology (n/N, %) 44/2818 (1.6)
Previous low back imaging (n/N, %) 1083/2818 (38.4)
Referred for imaging (n/N, %) 612/2818 (21.7)
  1. SD, standard deviation
  2. aBBQ measured out of 45, lower scores indicate more negative beliefs about low back pain