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Table 1 Inclusion and exclusion criteria

From: Quality of reporting of randomised controlled trials in chiropractic using the CONSORT checklist

Inclusion Criteria
 RCTs with parallel or cross-over study design
 Adult study populations with musculoskeletal and non-musculoskeletal with conditions or no condition
 Chiropractic high-velocity, low-amplitude (HVLA), musculoskeletal manipulation
 Treatment must include chiropractic manipulation, either spinal or peripheral (or both) with/without adjunctive therapy (mobilization, soft tissue therapy, massage, traction, electro-therapies, ultrasound, exercise advice, ergonomic advice, hot/cold therapy, back education)
 Comparators: HVLA, placebo, sham treatment or conventional/standard/usual care treatment, or no treatment
Exclusion Criteria
 Reviews, systematic reviews and meta-analyses
 Non-randomised trial designs (quasi-experimental, observational studies)
 Pilot or feasibility studies
 Studies with n-of-1
 Studies evaluating diagnostic tests, prevention, prognosis, cost-effectiveness, pathophysiological or mechanophysiological mechanisms, validation of questionnaires
 Trials not reported as full papers (abstracts), editorials, commentaries, letters, case reports or series, audits, guidelines, historical articles
 Methodological/Protocol, epidemiological and qualitative studies
 Studies reporting updates of previously published RCTs