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Table 1 Description of included studies

From: Effects of manual therapies on stability in people with musculoskeletal pain: a systematic review

StudyPain regionIntervention group M(SD). Sham group 2 M(SD).InterventionComparisonPain MeasureRisk of falls measure
Bennell 2005 [21]Hip OAPhysiotherapy group 67.4 (8.6). Placebo group 69.8 (7.5).Physiotherapy (massage, taping, mobilisation) and self-managementSham ultrasoundVASStep test
Bennell 2014 [20]Hip OAIntervention group 64.5 (8.6). Sham group 62.7 (6.4).Mobilisation and/or soft tissue and/or manipulation plus exerciseSham ultrasoundVASSit-to-stand, step test, gait speed, 4-square step test
Beselga 2016 [23]Hip OAIntervention group 78.3 (6.3). Placebo group 77.5 (6.9)Mobilisation of the hipSimulated mobilisationNRS11TUG*, sit-to-stand*, gait speed*
Abbott 2013 [19]Hip or Knee OAManual therapy + usual care group 67.3 (10.2). Exercise + usual care group 66.9(8.2). Usual care group 66.1 (10.7).Mobilisation and/or soft tissue and/or manipulation and usual careExercise and usual care; usual careNRS11*, WOMAC*TUG, sit-to-stand, gait speed
Abbott 2015 [18]Knee OAManual therapy + exercise group 61 (12). Exercise group 64 (10)Mobilisation and/or soft tissue and/or manipulation plus exerciseExerciseNRS11*, WOMAC*TUG, sit-to-stand*, gait speed
Cheawthamai 2014 [25]Knee OAManual therapy group 66.62 (8.77). Exercise group 64.05 (7.86).Self-manual therapy and exerciseExerciseVASGait speed
Cortés Godoy 2014 [26]Knee OAManual therapy group 85(median) (81–89(1st and 3rd quartiles)). Exercise group 84 (median) (82–84.5 (1st and 3rd quartiles)).Massage and exerciseExerciseVASTUG
Deyle 2000 [29]Knee OAPhysiotherapy group 64 (9.9). Exercise group 62.2 (9.2)Physiotherapy (mobilisation, massage) and exerciseSub-therapeutic ultrasoundWOMACGait speed
Deyle 2005 [28]Knee OAPhysiotherapy group 64 (9.9). Exercise group 62.2 (9.2)Physiotherapy (mobilisation, massage) and exerciseExerciseWOMACGait speed
Fitzgerald et al. 2016 [31]Knee OAExercise + manual therapy group 58 (9.8). Exercise group 58.3 (10).Manual therapy and exerciseExerciseWOMAC(* at nine weeks)
NRS11
TUG, sit-to-stand, gait speed
French 2013 [32]Knee OAExercise + manual therapy group 58 (9.8). Exercise group 58.3 (10)Manual therapy and exerciseExerciseNRS11Sit-to-stand, gait speed
Jardine 2012 [34]Knee OAOsteopathic group 63.20 (7.97). Control group 63.73 (9.63)Osteopathic fascial releaseNo treatmentVASStep test
Lee 2017 [36]Neck painManual therapy + exercise group 59 (2.4). Exercise group 58 (1.6)Therapeutic exercise with joint mobilisation applied to cervical and upper thoracic spineTherapeutic exercise aloneVAS*, NDI*Static balance ability
Maiers 2014 [37]Neck painManual therapy + exercise group 59 (2.4). Exercise group 58 (1.6).Chiropractic (manipulation, mobilisation, traction, massage) and exerciseExerciseNRS11*, NDITUG
Rudolfsson 2014 [38]Neck painMassage group 51.2 (9.0). Neck coordination exercise group 50.7 (8.6). Strength training exercise group 51.6 (9.0).MassageExerciseNRS11Balance (COP)*
Bennell 2010 [22]Spine painPhysiotherapy group 66.2 (8.0). Control group 66.3 (11.8).Mobilisation, massage, postural taping and exerciseNo interventionNRS11TUG
Dougherty 2014 [30]LBPManual therapy group 76.99 (6.77). Control group 77.04 (6.81)HVLA spine manipulation and/or flexion distraction and/or mobilisationSham ultrasoundVAS, ODI*TUG
Goertz et al., 2016 [43]LBPHigh velocity manipulation group 44.1 (10.6). Low velocity mobilisation group 44.5 (10.2). Control group 44.4 (10.5).Spinal manipulation, spinal mobilisationSham controlNonePostural sway (blindfolded and on soft surface, without shoes); muscle activity (EMG) of paraspinal muscles in response to an unexpected sudden load.
Hicks et al. 2016 [33]LBPIntervention group 69.5 (7.0). Exercise group 70.7 (6.8)Passive control intervention (heat, ultrasound and massage)Trunk muscle training program (exercises) augmented with neuromuscular electrical stimulationModified Oswestry LBP Questionnaire
NRS11
TUG test;* gait speed*; Tampa scale of kinesiophobia; global rating of functional improvement
Kim 2015 [35]LBPManual therapy group 59.2 (6.5). Exercise group 62.6 (6.6)Myofascial therapy and muscle energy technique plus exerciseExerciseVAS*, ODI*Balance system SD*
Ruhe 2012 [39]LBPManual therapy group 39.8 (10.5). Control group 41.5 (5.5)Manipulation, mobilisation and/or massageNo interventionNRS11*Balance (COP)*
Trampas 2014 [40]LBPManual Therapy with massage and exercise 35.8 (7.16). Exercise group 33.4 (12.01)Massage and exerciseExerciseNoneBiodex stability system
Yu et al. 2016 [42]LBPMyofascial release group 70.4 (3.2). Exercise group 69.4 (4.1)Myofascial release of the iliopsoasExercisesNRS11Balance (changes in pressure applied to each force plate and shows the stability of the centre of the gravity).
Remodified Schober’s test (RST)
Castro-Sanchez 2011 [24]FibromyalgiaMyofascial therapy group 55.3. Sham ultrasound 53.5Myofascial therapySham ultrasoundMcGill, VAS*, NRS11*Postural stability
Cuesta-Barriuso 2014 [27]Ankle arthropathyMobilisation of the ankle group 37.6 (13.1). Traction of ankles group 33.5 (11.7)Mobilisation of the ankle, infrared thermotherapy, exercises, iceTraction of ankles, infrared thermotherapy, exercises and iceVASRomberg’s test
van den Dolder 2006 [41]Knee painMassage group 55 (11). No intervention group 52 [18]MassageNo intervention (wait list)Patellofemoral pain severity questionnaireStep test*
  1. Table descriptions: COP centre of pressure, GP general practitioner, LBP low back pain, NDI neck disability index, NRS11 numerical rating scale (scored 0–10), OA osteoarthritis, ODI Oswestry disability index, TUG timed up & go test, VAS visual analogue scale; WOMAC - Western Ontario and McMaster Universities arthritis index
  2. *significant between group difference on this measure