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Table 1 Description of included studies

From: Effects of manual therapies on stability in people with musculoskeletal pain: a systematic review

Study Pain region Intervention group M(SD). Sham group 2 M(SD). Intervention Comparison Pain Measure Risk of falls measure
Bennell 2005 [21] Hip OA Physiotherapy group 67.4 (8.6). Placebo group 69.8 (7.5). Physiotherapy (massage, taping, mobilisation) and self-management Sham ultrasound VAS Step test
Bennell 2014 [20] Hip OA Intervention group 64.5 (8.6). Sham group 62.7 (6.4). Mobilisation and/or soft tissue and/or manipulation plus exercise Sham ultrasound VAS Sit-to-stand, step test, gait speed, 4-square step test
Beselga 2016 [23] Hip OA Intervention group 78.3 (6.3). Placebo group 77.5 (6.9) Mobilisation of the hip Simulated mobilisation NRS11 TUG*, sit-to-stand*, gait speed*
Abbott 2013 [19] Hip or Knee OA Manual therapy + usual care group 67.3 (10.2). Exercise + usual care group 66.9(8.2). Usual care group 66.1 (10.7). Mobilisation and/or soft tissue and/or manipulation and usual care Exercise and usual care; usual care NRS11*, WOMAC* TUG, sit-to-stand, gait speed
Abbott 2015 [18] Knee OA Manual therapy + exercise group 61 (12). Exercise group 64 (10) Mobilisation and/or soft tissue and/or manipulation plus exercise Exercise NRS11*, WOMAC* TUG, sit-to-stand*, gait speed
Cheawthamai 2014 [25] Knee OA Manual therapy group 66.62 (8.77). Exercise group 64.05 (7.86). Self-manual therapy and exercise Exercise VAS Gait speed
Cortés Godoy 2014 [26] Knee OA Manual therapy group 85(median) (81–89(1st and 3rd quartiles)). Exercise group 84 (median) (82–84.5 (1st and 3rd quartiles)). Massage and exercise Exercise VAS TUG
Deyle 2000 [29] Knee OA Physiotherapy group 64 (9.9). Exercise group 62.2 (9.2) Physiotherapy (mobilisation, massage) and exercise Sub-therapeutic ultrasound WOMAC Gait speed
Deyle 2005 [28] Knee OA Physiotherapy group 64 (9.9). Exercise group 62.2 (9.2) Physiotherapy (mobilisation, massage) and exercise Exercise WOMAC Gait speed
Fitzgerald et al. 2016 [31] Knee OA Exercise + manual therapy group 58 (9.8). Exercise group 58.3 (10). Manual therapy and exercise Exercise WOMAC(* at nine weeks)
TUG, sit-to-stand, gait speed
French 2013 [32] Knee OA Exercise + manual therapy group 58 (9.8). Exercise group 58.3 (10) Manual therapy and exercise Exercise NRS11 Sit-to-stand, gait speed
Jardine 2012 [34] Knee OA Osteopathic group 63.20 (7.97). Control group 63.73 (9.63) Osteopathic fascial release No treatment VAS Step test
Lee 2017 [36] Neck pain Manual therapy + exercise group 59 (2.4). Exercise group 58 (1.6) Therapeutic exercise with joint mobilisation applied to cervical and upper thoracic spine Therapeutic exercise alone VAS*, NDI* Static balance ability
Maiers 2014 [37] Neck pain Manual therapy + exercise group 59 (2.4). Exercise group 58 (1.6). Chiropractic (manipulation, mobilisation, traction, massage) and exercise Exercise NRS11*, NDI TUG
Rudolfsson 2014 [38] Neck pain Massage group 51.2 (9.0). Neck coordination exercise group 50.7 (8.6). Strength training exercise group 51.6 (9.0). Massage Exercise NRS11 Balance (COP)*
Bennell 2010 [22] Spine pain Physiotherapy group 66.2 (8.0). Control group 66.3 (11.8). Mobilisation, massage, postural taping and exercise No intervention NRS11 TUG
Dougherty 2014 [30] LBP Manual therapy group 76.99 (6.77). Control group 77.04 (6.81) HVLA spine manipulation and/or flexion distraction and/or mobilisation Sham ultrasound VAS, ODI* TUG
Goertz et al., 2016 [43] LBP High velocity manipulation group 44.1 (10.6). Low velocity mobilisation group 44.5 (10.2). Control group 44.4 (10.5). Spinal manipulation, spinal mobilisation Sham control None Postural sway (blindfolded and on soft surface, without shoes); muscle activity (EMG) of paraspinal muscles in response to an unexpected sudden load.
Hicks et al. 2016 [33] LBP Intervention group 69.5 (7.0). Exercise group 70.7 (6.8) Passive control intervention (heat, ultrasound and massage) Trunk muscle training program (exercises) augmented with neuromuscular electrical stimulation Modified Oswestry LBP Questionnaire
TUG test;* gait speed*; Tampa scale of kinesiophobia; global rating of functional improvement
Kim 2015 [35] LBP Manual therapy group 59.2 (6.5). Exercise group 62.6 (6.6) Myofascial therapy and muscle energy technique plus exercise Exercise VAS*, ODI* Balance system SD*
Ruhe 2012 [39] LBP Manual therapy group 39.8 (10.5). Control group 41.5 (5.5) Manipulation, mobilisation and/or massage No intervention NRS11* Balance (COP)*
Trampas 2014 [40] LBP Manual Therapy with massage and exercise 35.8 (7.16). Exercise group 33.4 (12.01) Massage and exercise Exercise None Biodex stability system
Yu et al. 2016 [42] LBP Myofascial release group 70.4 (3.2). Exercise group 69.4 (4.1) Myofascial release of the iliopsoas Exercises NRS11 Balance (changes in pressure applied to each force plate and shows the stability of the centre of the gravity).
Remodified Schober’s test (RST)
Castro-Sanchez 2011 [24] Fibromyalgia Myofascial therapy group 55.3. Sham ultrasound 53.5 Myofascial therapy Sham ultrasound McGill, VAS*, NRS11* Postural stability
Cuesta-Barriuso 2014 [27] Ankle arthropathy Mobilisation of the ankle group 37.6 (13.1). Traction of ankles group 33.5 (11.7) Mobilisation of the ankle, infrared thermotherapy, exercises, ice Traction of ankles, infrared thermotherapy, exercises and ice VAS Romberg’s test
van den Dolder 2006 [41] Knee pain Massage group 55 (11). No intervention group 52 [18] Massage No intervention (wait list) Patellofemoral pain severity questionnaire Step test*
  1. Table descriptions: COP centre of pressure, GP general practitioner, LBP low back pain, NDI neck disability index, NRS11 numerical rating scale (scored 0–10), OA osteoarthritis, ODI Oswestry disability index, TUG timed up & go test, VAS visual analogue scale; WOMAC - Western Ontario and McMaster Universities arthritis index
  2. *significant between group difference on this measure